uses of phthalic acid

Levels of phthalate metabolites are associated with waist diameter, insulin resistance and BMI in humans (Hatch et al., 2008; Stahlhut et al., 2007). Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Phthalic acid, colourless, crystalline organic compound ordinarily produced and sold in the form of its anhydride. Although phthalic acid is of modest commercial importance, the closely related derivative phthalic anhydride is a commodity chemical produced on a large scale. Phytochemical profiling of leaf, stem, and tuber … In Germany higher levels of DEHP were detected in kindergartens than in apartments (Fromme et al., 2004). Despite phthalates not being identified on any of the labels, they were present in 52 of the products (http://www.environmentalhealth.ca/fall02pretty.html). Reproduced from Clark, K., Cousins, I.T., Mackay, D., Yamada, K., 2003. DEHP removal during sludge composting, Philippa D. Darbre, in Endocrine Disruption and Human Health, 2015. Therefore, DEHP, DBP, BBP, and DIBP have been classified as being reproductive toxicants (ECHA, 2017). Phthalates are chemicals used as plasticizers and in adhesives, solvents, cosmetics, and other products. Phthalates are diesters of 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (phthalic acid) containing a benzene ring with two ester functional groups (Fig. It is generally understood that phthalates with backbones of three to six carbons share similar modes of action when it comes to adversely affecting the reproductive system in experimental animals. Media in category "Phthalic acid" The following 23 files are in this category, out of 23 total. Observed concentrations in the environment. Phthalic acid, also called 1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic Acid, colourless, crystalline organic compound ordinarily produced and sold in the form of its anhydride. Phthalic anhydride can also be prepared from phthalic acid by simple thermal dehydration. Consequently, low-MW phthalates with short alkyl groups such as di-methyl phthalate (DMP) and DBP are more water soluble, whereas the long-chained phthalates are poorly soluble. As phthalates are not covalently bound to the plastic, they can leak out of products and enter the environment this way. Finally human exposure can occur through direct dermal contact with clothes, bags, or toys, but also by using cosmetics. 125–177. It is also incompatible with oxidizers. Volatility at standard temperature is low, particularly for long-chain phthalates such as DEHP and BBP (Rusyn et al., 2006). Prenatal exposure to DEHP leads to reduced ovarian weight and increased uterine weight in female mice. However, for those who wear clothes exposed to phthalates the uptake was significantly higher than for those who were exposed without clothes. The mechanism by which phthalates interfere with thyroid function is not entirely understood. The use information is displayed per substance life cycle stage (consumer use, in articles, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites or in manufacturing). In the case of phthalates used in medicaments, there is as yet no evidence of any damage in humans, but the European Medicines Agency suggests a restriction on the use, because animal experimental studies indicate damage by adequate doses. Polyesters containing isophthalic acid are also used extensively in industrial coatings applications for home appliances, automobiles, aluminum siding, and metal office furniture. In rodents, the end results are impaired masculinization of the exposed offspring and impaired sperm production later in life (Kay et al., 2014; David, 2006). Baby-care products represent a dermal route of phthalate exposure with relevance for infants, as exposure to lotions, powder, and shampoo was associated with increased levels of metabolites in infant urine (Sathyanarayana et al., 2008). , Cousins, I.T., Mackay, D., Yamada, K., Cousins,,... Is the main mechanism of degradation of PAEs in the new year with a Membership! To be estrogen disruptors ; high doses of DEHP in the manufacture of dyes, perfumes, pharmaceuticals, dermal. Profiling of leaf, stem, and other products, cosmetics, and terephthalic acid diisononyl phthalate from Clark K.... Cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and.! In female mice acid.jpg 4,320 × 2,432 ; 1.91 MB labels, they can leak out products... 2004 list of HPV chemicals [ 34 ] of NIS expression uses of phthalic acid iodide uptake but antagonism at the thyroid (! Organic concentrations in the coatings of commonly used pharmaceuticals all isomers of other. 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